API 20B pdf download Open Die Shaped Forgings for Use in the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry
b) Forging parameters: hot work temperature range,description of each forging operation (including product
configuration at start and finish of each operation) and hot work1atio for each step , forge equipment used.
c)Post-forging parameters: time, temperature, and media of coolingbake-out, heat treatment specificatiorand
actual times and temperatures, cooling media, heat treatment equipment used.
d) Test records: records of the examination, mechanical testing, and metallographic evaluations as described
in Section 4.
5 Production Forgings
5.1 Qualification of Procurement Sources for Starting Material
5.1.1 Only melt source facilities that are approved by the forging manufacturer shall be used to supply startingmaterial such as billet or ingot material.The forging manufacturer shall have a documented procedure, fullyimplemented, for qualifying starting material suppliers for each specific size and grade of starting material.Theapproval process shall be based on both a quality assurance and a technical evaluation.The approval processshall establish the methodology by which the starting material supplier will be evaluated on an ongoing basis tomaintain their status as an approved material supplier.
5.1.2Thel maintenance of an acceptable quality program, such as an IS0 registration, is not sufficient by itselfto satisfy the requirements of 5.1.1. Documented evidence that a starting material supplier has a historical andongoing technical capability of producing materials meeting this specification, and who has proven, implementedprocedures and capabilities in place to consistently produce acceptable product, is a minimum requirement.Options for the technical approval of a starting material supplier include one or more of the following.
a) material supplier with a minimum of one-year experience. Demonstration of acceptable experience shall
include tests/inspections, quantity of material received, nonconformance analysis, etc.;
b) on-site technical audit at scheduled three-year intervals.A new starting material supplier shall be subject to
an on-site technical audit,which includes the controls addressed in 5.1.3.
5.1.3 The forging manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that a starting material supplier has implementedcontrols addressing the following, when applicable, for each size and grade of starting material ordered:
– chemistry controls;
— hydrogen controls;
– melting practice controls;
– teeming practice and ingot mold controls;
– hot work practice controls (method of forging, amount of reduction, forging temperature, etc.);- cooling rate and method controls;
– ingot/billet cropping controls;
starting material inspection and acceptance criteria (cleanliness requirements，limitations on porosity orinclusions, grain size, secondary phases,microstructure, macrostructure, etc.);
– material contamination controls (e.g., mercury, radioactivity).
5.2.1Starting material requirements shall be documented in the form of material specifications.Materialspecifications shall be developed by the forging manutacturer or the purchaser.Material specitications shailinclude, at a minimum:
– material grade, including element chemistry ranges;
– melting practices and ladle refinements;
— forging reduction range, if applicable;
– acceptable cleanliness level range, as required by applicable FSL;
-acceptable inspection practices and criteria.
5.2.2 The forging manufacturer shall document acceptance of incoming starting material to the requirements ofthe material specification prior to use for production of forgings.
5.3Manufacturing Process Specification(MPs)
The forging manufacturer shall prepare a manufacturing process specification (MPS) to include, at a minimum!the materiail specitication and the general variables listed in 5.4.1 and the heat treat parameters listed in5.4,.2.7Aspart of the MP’s , the forging steps shall be shown detailing initial and final dimensions during forging for each stepof the forging process.This will also include documentation of the heat or reheat temperature ranges required foreach hot work reduction step in a drawing and written documents.
5.4Process Control Variables
The following are general process control variables for the production of qualified forgings:— size of starting material, cut weight, and tolerances;
—evaluation process used for incoming material and for determining cropped length of starting material;-hydrogen flake-control method (bake-out, slow cool, etc.), if applicable
– hot-working temperature range;
– overall hot work ratio from starting material;
description of each forging operation, including general product configuration at the beginning and end ofeach different type of hot-work or forging operation and hot-work ratio for each step;
– acceptable forging equipment for production;
– inspection requirements;
—NDE, if applicable.