API 5UE pdf download Recommended Practice for Ultrasonic Evaluation of Pipe Imperfections
3.6 angle beam: An inspection method in which the angle of incidence or refraction is other than perpendicular to the surface of the test object being inspected. This includes the use of shear waves and longitudinal (compression) waves.
3.7 angle beam block: A specified type of reference standard used for the angle beam method.
3.8 angle of incidence: The included angle between the beam axis of the incident wave and a line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence.
3.9 angle of refraction: The included angle between the beam axis of a refracted wave and a line perpendicular to the refraction interface. 3.10 API: Abbreviation for American Petroleum Institute, headquartered in Washington, D.C.
3.11 artificial discontinuity: See reference indicator.
3.12 ASNT: Abbreviation for American Society for Nondestructive Testing, headquartered in Columbus, Ohio.
3.13 ASTM: Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials, headquartered in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.
3.14 axial scanning: Scanning for imperfections with a transverse orientation. The transducer is aligned with the lon- gitudinal axis of the pipe.
3.15 calibration: The comparison of an instrument with, or the adjustment to, known reference(s) often traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
3.16 certification: A written declaration stating compliance with stated criteria.
3.17 circumferential scanning: Scanning for imperfections with a longitudinal orientation. The transducer is aligned perpendicular with the longitudinal axis of the pipe. 3.18 couplant: A material (usually a liquid) used between an ultrasonic transducer and the test specimen to conduct ultrasonic energy between them. 3.19 Differential Time of Flight: (T 2 – T 1 ), time difference from the leading edge of signal envelope to the trailing edge of the signal envelope.
3.20 digital readout: Numeric display of ultrasonic data.
3.21 disposition: The action taken in conformance with the applicable API Specification with regard to an imperfec- tion in a length of new pipe.
3.22 distance standardization: The adjustment of the A-scan display to accurately reflect known distances to spe- cific positions on the time-base.
3.23 evaluation: The process of determining the sever- ity of an imperfection, which leads to determining whether the pipe is acceptable or rejectable under the appropriate specification.
3.24 frequency: Number of complete cycles of a wave motion per second of time. Unit of measure is called a hertz (Hz).
3.25 FSH: Abbreviation for full screen height.
3.26 gain: The controlled adjustment of the amplified, dis- played signal response in dB units.
3.27 gate: An electronic device for monitoring signals in a selected segment of the trace on an A-scan display. 3.28 gate start: The position along the A-scan display where the gate begins. The displayed value may be expressed in inches or microseconds.
3.29 gate width: The length of the gate along the A-scan display as measured from the gate start. The displayed value may be expressed in inches or microseconds.
3.30 IIW block (International Institute of Welding): See angle beam block.
3.31 imperfection: A discontinuity or irregularity in the product. For exact definitions and illustrations of specific imperfections, see API Std 5T1.
3.32 indication: A response from nondestructive inspec- tion that requires interpretation in order to determine its significance.
3.33 instrument delay control: An electronic circuit used to adjust the start of the time-base. May also be referred to as the zero control.
3.34 instrument material velocity control: An elec- tronic circuit used to adjust the length of the time-base rela- tive to the velocity of the material being inspected. May also be referred to as the range or calibrate control.
3.35 inspection: The process of examining pipe for pos- sible defects or for deviation from established standards.
3.36 inspector: A person who is qualified and responsi- ble for one or more of the inspections or tests specified in this document.
3.37 k factor: A derived factor for calculating depth when using the Amplitude Distance Differential Technique (ADDT).